Brave Alps And Gazi's Of Ottoman Empire

 Welcome to Dirilispk, our today's article is about Brave Alps And Gazi's Who Served In The Establishment Of The Ottoman Empire. The question of the origin of the dynasty that founded the Ottoman Empire and how the Ottomans became a great state from a small principality continues to remain fresh as a mystery among historians. In fact, according to historical records, ethnic studies, traditions, existing stamps and coins of the dynasty that founded the Ottoman Empire, it is certain that they came from the Kayı tribe of the Gün Han branch, which is the right branch of the Oghuzs.

Brave Alps And Gazi's Of Ottoman Empire
Brave Alps And Gazi's Of Ottoman Empire 

On the contrary, although various views have been put forward, none of them have been popular in the scientific world, and the owners of these theses have not been able to produce documents and information that would strengthen their views. Despite this, in the end, even ideas that had no scientific value were put forward for the founders of the Ottoman Empire and their comrades-in-arms to the point of being considered legendary figures.

Kayi Tribe Alps and Gazi's:

It is certain that the population of the Kayı tribe, on which Osman Gazi was based, does not seem to be large enough to form a large principality in a short time. However, it is also understood that Ertuğrul Bey, who appeared in Anatolia in the 1230s, was a powerful and respected person. As a matter of fact, when he was given the areas around Söğüt and Domaniç as winter quarters and pastures, he was able to have a say in that region in a short time.

This situation must have resulted from Ertuğrul Bey's charismatic nature rather than his warrior personality. He gets along well with the non-Muslim elements in the region, most likely plays the role of arbitrator in land and other disputes, plays the role of a father among Muslim and non-Muslim people, and commands respect from everyone. We also see from some of the events reflected in the sources that he was respected by the Seljuk Sultan and that he participated in wars as the commander of the frontier forces whenever necessary. These activities and his position must have made Ertuğrul Gazi the undisputed leader of other Turkish tribes and groups belonging to the Oghuz tribes on the fringes.

As a matter of fact, this issue becomes clear when Osman Gazi was appointed head of the tribe after the death of Ertuğrul Gazi. Although it is stated that he became the head of the tribe because he played an active role in his father's health and was young and brave, the fact that other lords paid allegiance to him was also significantly effective. This issue is stated in the sources as follows.

On the day he came to power, the lords and vassals of the province appeared before him and said: You are from the Kayı Khan generation. Kayı Khan was the lord and khan of all Oghuz lords after Oghuz. In accordance with the Oghuz custom, when there is no one from the Oghuz lineage, the khanate and the sultanate do not fall to the lineage of another tribe, although there is the Kayı lineage. From now on, there is no help or remedy for us from the Seljuks. Most of the country was lost to them. The Tatars prevailed over them. Also, the late Sultan Alaaddin showed favor towards your father and you. He gave you these tips. For this reason, you must be the khan. You have merit for the sultan and the khanate. There should even be an alliance, because sultanate can be achieved either by alliance or by merit. We will obey and obey you as required. So that we can fight with peace of mind in these parts.

As can be seen, in addition to Osman Gazi's own tribe, the surrounding Oghuz tribes and clan lords also came and expressed their nationality. This situation must have kept his power at the highest level.

Brave Alps And Gazi's Of Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire Alps 

Ottoman Empire Alps:

In old sources, the names of Akçakoca, Abdurrahman Gazi, Hasan Alp, Konur Alp, Turgut Alp, Aygut Alp, Gündüz Alp, Saltuk Alp, Köse Mihal, Samsa Çavuş and Kara Ali, as the oldest comrades of Ertuğrul and Osman Gazi, are frequently mentioned in conquests. is passing. Sometimes they participated in field battles together or in the capture of a large fortress, sometimes they each went to the siege of a castle, and sometimes they were involved in the administration and development of a city. Most importantly, before every action to be taken, both during war and peace, they organized a consultative assembly with the participation of members of the ulama, and then they made their decisions.

Therefore, it was as if they were laying the foundations of a great state that would spread over three continents of the future and direct world politics for centuries, with patience, effort and sacrifice, love and desire, affection and loyalty. In fact, when the relations between them were reviewed, it was as if the divisions, you-me feuds, and self-interest concerns that were seen in the last two centuries of the Seljuks and the Turkey of the Principalities had never touched this region. Everyone was wholeheartedly and devotedly devoted to Ertuğrul Gazi and his descendants, whom they knew as their best friend, as the old saying goes, and they were obedient to his every order. In this respect, it is an undeniable fact that these veterans, as well as the Ottoman lineage and the ulema class, made extraordinary contributions in establishing the Ottoman Empire on a solid and deep-rooted foundation.

Turgut Alp Ottoman Empire Alps
Tugut Alp Ottoman Empire Alps 

Turgut Alp:

Turgut Alp was one of Osman Gazi's closest comrades-in-arms. While Osman Gazi was busy with the conquest of Bilecik, he assigned him to capture İnegöl. Turgut Alp quickly came and surrounded the city. Shortly after, Osman Gazi, who captured Bilecik and Yarhisar, came and joined the siege and gave the veterans permission to plunder. With the participation of Osman Gazi, the veterans became more active and captured İnegöl in a short time (699/1299-1300). The ruler of the castle was killed. Because he had inflicted great torment on Muslims for years and martyred many people.

Osman Gazi gave the administration of İnegöl to Turgut Alp in 701/1301-1302. For this reason, the İnegöl region was called Turgut Alp province. It is understood that Turgut Alp, who was in charge of İnegöl for a long time, also participated in gaza movements from time to time.

As a matter of fact, he participated in the conquest of Atranos together with Orhan Gazi in 725/1325. Osman Gazi especially desired the conquest of this place. Because Tekfur's father caused the martyrdom of his nephew Bayhoca in the Battle of Koyunhisar. When Orhan Gazi appeared in front of the castle, the tekfuru fled to the mountain and started to wait. His aim was to return and take possession of the castle after the withdrawal of the veterans. However, Orhan Gazi followed him and eliminated the takfur and those who opposed him. He gave peace to the people of the castle and made them stay in their places. This place has been known as Orhaneli since then.

After this victory, Turgut Alp participated in the siege of Bursa with his veterans and conquered. Turgut Alp, who lived a long life, was sincerely devoted to Geyikli Baba, one of the well-to-do saints in the İnegöl region. 

Saltuk Alp Ottoman Empire Alps
Saltuk Alp Ottoman Empire Alps 

Saltuk Alp:

Saltuk Alp is among Osman Gazi's loyal comrades. His name is not often seen in history. He must have been always with Osman Gazi.

When Osman Gazi went on an expedition to the Sakarya valley, he assigned Köse Mihal and Saltuk Alp along with his son Orhan Gazi to ensure the security of the country. Çavdarlu Tatars, who really wanted to take advantage of the opportunity, came and plundered the Karacahisar market. Meanwhile, Orhan Gazi, who was in Eskişehir, quickly arrived and caught the looters in a location called Oyunşhisarı. Together with Mihal Gazi and Saltuk Alp, they dispersed the bandit group in a short time. They captured many of them, especially their chiefs, and returned to Karacahisar.

The name of Saltuk Alp, who was present at the conquest of Bursa and was with Osman Gazi in his last breaths, has not been found in sources after this date.

Aygut Alp Ottoman Empire Alps
Aygut Alp Ottoman Empire Alps 

Aygut Alp:

Aygut Alp is one of the famous brave men who stood by Osman Gazi since the first conquests. As a matter of fact, while Osman Bey gave the towns under his rule to his comrades-in-arms in 701/1301-1302, he also gave İnönü Castle to Aygut Alp.

Aygut Alp was probably busy with the administration and development of İnönü for a long time. The last time we see him is in the conquest of Izmit. In 728/1327-1328, Orhan Gazi took action to capture Izmit (Iznikmid), which had been the target of the veterans for a long time and the legacy of Akçakoca. He calculated that the siege would last a long time and aimed to cut off all aid routes from sea and land. At that time, Izmit was under the rule of a princess named Belakonya, a descendant of the Kaisers. The princess's brother, Kalayun, ruled in the nearby castle called Koyunhisar. With a strong army under his command, he frequently attacked Muslim villages and did not hesitate to attack the Turkish cavalrymen wandering around whenever he found the opportunity. Orhan Gazi, who wanted to eliminate his damage and prevent his help during the siege,

Kalayun rejected the offers of surrender because he had infinite confidence in himself and had been fighting against the Turks for years. While he was fortifying his castle on the one hand, on the other hand, he started to rain arrows on the Turks from the castle, personally leading his warriors. However, at the very beginning of the battle, he was hit by an arrow that hit his chest and rolled down from the castle bastion. The defenders, who were astonished, did not know what to do and opened the castle gate to the veterans. Thus, Koyunhisar was conquered almost without any fighting. He brought Aygut Alp Kalayun's severed head to Orhan Gazi.

Orhan Gazi attached it to a spearhead and erected it in front of Iznik. When Princess Belakonya saw this situation, she was deeply saddened and opened the gates of the city to the Turks, on the condition that her life would not be touched.

His son Kara Ali was one of the famous commanders who participated in many conquests during his time. The descendants of Aygut Alp assumed important positions at various levels of the state.

Kara Ali Ottoman Empire Alps
Kara Ali Ottoman Empire Alps

Kara Ali:

Kara Ali is the son of Aygut Alp. He is one of the commanders whose name is frequently mentioned with his successes since Osman Gazi's first conquests.

In 1308, by the order of Osman Bey, he was assigned to capture the island of Galios/Alyos, one of the countries affiliated to the Kite tekfur, around Ulubat. Kara Ali, who conquered the castle peacefully, brought the priest of the big church and his family to the presence of Osman Gazi. Osman Gazi married the priest's beautiful daughter to this young hero.

In the same year, Kara Ali participated in Osman Gazi's campaign, which resulted in the conquest of Leblebici Fortress, Lefke, Çadırlı, Mekece, Akhisar and Geyve. When the Tekfur spring was besieged after Geyve, news was received that the Ilkhanid ruler Olcayto Khan had dispatched a large army under the command of Çoban Bey to Anatolia. Thereupon, Osman Gazi, who left the capture of the Tekfur spring to Kara Ali, returned. Kara Ali captured the Tekfur spring in a short time and sent the spoils he obtained to Osman Gazi. As a reward for his services, Tekfur Spring and its surroundings were given to this young hero as a fief. From now on, Kara Ali tried to conquer the surroundings of the region he ruled. He added Yenikale, Önde and Yanıkçahisar, among the castles subject to Geyve, to Osman Gazi's hometowns.

It is seen that Kara Ali Alp actively participated in the conquest movements during the Orhan Gazi period. As a matter of fact, Kara Ali, who conquered Koyunhisarı Castle with his father, facilitated the conquest of Izmit with this victory. Because Princess Belakonya, the commander of Izmit Castle, who saw the severed head of her brother Kalayun, handed over the city to the Turks.

When the news reached Orhan Gazi that with the conquest of Izmit and its surroundings, the Greeks who were fighting there settled in Hereke Castle and fortified it well and made it their base, Kara Ali Bey was appointed to capture this place. Kara Ali Bey, who came quickly and besieged the castle, wanted to conquer the castle as soon as possible by renewing attack after attack. However, during this time, he was injured by an arrow hitting his eye. This pain could not stop the brave man who, as the history says, brought the lions to the ground, and while he continued the operation and fell the castle in a short time, those who pleaded for mercy were left untouched, while those who resisted were put to the sword. While the warriors in the castle retreated towards Istanbul, the people agreed to stay in the castle and live under the rule of the Turks.

Kara Ali's name was last mentioned in the Pelekanon battle fought by Orhan Gazi with Byzantium. Kara Timurtaş, son of Kara Ali, is one of the conquerors of Rumelia. With his extraordinary achievements, he is the first person to hold the position of vizier and beylerbey in the Ottoman Empire.

Samsa Çavuş Ottoman Empire Alps
Samsa Cavus Ottoman Empire Alps 

Samsa Çavuş:

Samsa Çavuş is one of Ertuğrul and Osman Gazi's loyal friends and comrades-in-arms. He is the first person to use the title of Sergeant in the Ottoman Empire.

It is rumored that Samsa Çavuş  came to Söğüt together with Ertuğrul Gazi and his tribes and tribes. However, since Sergeant Samsa's family was very large, he was overwhelmed by the pressure of the İnegöl Greeks and left Söğüt and migrated to the Mudurnu region. He started to maintain his existence and livelihood by giving mudara (giving worldly goods and showing a smiling face for the sake of religion and peace) to the Greeks here.

When Osman Gazi went on an expedition against Sarıkaya and Sorgun, he encountered Samsa Çavuş. Samsa Sergeant's father's friend helped this young combatant in every way. He took them to Taraklı, Göynük and Mudurnu on the Bolu road. After Osman Gazi took these places under his control, he ordered them to obey Sergeant Samsa and returned.

When Osman Gazi went on his second expedition towards Sakarya 17 years later, Samsa Çavuş was again the deputy sergeant. When they arrived in Lefke and Çadırlı, the tekfurs of both castles surrendered their castles, begging for mercy. When Samsa Çavuş requested that these two castles be left to him privately, Osman Gazi said:

This would not be the right move. Because if we take away the property of those who obey us, then no one will obey us and we will always have to fight. He did not accept his request and left the takfurs in their place. Samsa Çavuş made Sergeant happy by giving him one of his own castles near Yenişehir.This place is still known as Çavuş village. Then, Mekece, Akhisar and Karaçepiş fortresses were conquered.

From now on, Samsa Çavuş began to take a more active role in the conquests. In 1317, he went on an expedition with Orhan Gazi and conquered the Karatekin fortress on the Iznik road. Following the conquest, Orhan Gazi appointed Sergeant Samsa as the commander of the castle. From then on, Samsa Çavuş and his veterans continuously raided Iznik. He took part in activities that would facilitate the conquest of the castle.

It is believed that Samsa Çavuş, who also participated in the Pelekanon battle with Byzantium in 731/1330, died shortly after this date. His grave is in Hacı Musalar village near Mudurnu.

Konur Alp Ottoman Empire Alps
Konur Alp Ottoman Empire Alps

Konur Alp:

Konur Alp is one of Osman Gazi's most famous comrades. He probably must have been present in all of his wars from the beginning. However, his name is mentioned for the first time in the expedition organized against Akyazı and Kocaeli, in which he participated with Orhan Gazi. While Osman Gazi appointed his son Orhan Bey to head the Gaza movement, he also made his most famous and trusted commanders his companions. As a matter of fact, it is stated in the sources that he recruited four of his bravest comrades, Köse Mihal, Abdurrahman, Konur Alp and Akçakoca, who were experienced with twenty years of loyalty and war.

In this expedition, Kara Çepiş and Alp/Ebesusu fortresses were taken. Konur Alp, who was given the Kara Çepiş fortress, was assigned to raid the Akyazı direction. After capturing Tuzpazarı in Akyazı, he fought bloody battles with the enemies in Uzuncabel for two days. At the time Bursa was captured, Konur Alp was adding Akyazı, Konurapa/Konrapa (Düzce), Bolu and Mudurnu to the administration of the Turks.

After Bursa was conquered, Orhan Gazi assigned his experienced lords such as Konur Alp, Akçakoca and Gazi Abdurrahman to conquer the castles on the road to Istanbul. These commanders captured fortified positions such as Kandıra, Samandıra and Aydos in a short time and easily.

Konur Alp probably died in 1328 during the preparations for the conquest of Iznik. His body was buried in Konurapa. In Hammer's words, the land they had trampled many times during war shipments was now covering his body.

Kose Mihal Gazi Ottoman Empire Alps
Kose Mihal Gazi Ottoman Empire Alps 

Kose Mihal Gazi:

Osman Gazi's comrade-in-arms and loyal friend. Kose Mihal Gazi was the lord of Harmankaya and its surroundings, located in the east of Bilecik province, one of the border castles of the Byzantine Empire.

In a battle between Osman Gazi and Eskişehir Bey, Kose Mihal Gazi, who was on the opposing side, was captured. Osman Bey forgave him, looking at Köse Mihal's nobility, courage and bravery in his attitude, and soon these two became good friends. It is emphasized in the sources that Kose Mihal Gazi was always with Osman Gazi and that the people of Harmankaya received all the services of the veterans. Osman Gazi had full confidence and trust in him. If he encountered a difficult issue, he would consult with him. 

Osman Gazi wanted Kose Mihal Gazi, who knew the road and the region well, to be present during his expedition that ended with the conquest of Taraklı, Göynük and Mudurnu on the Bolu road. We tell him to attack Tarakçı Yenice. What do you think? When he said, "Madam; Upon inquiry, let's pass through Sarıkaya and Beştaş so that we can cross the Sakarya water easily. Besides, veterans come to us from that side. Even Mudurnu province is easy to hit. And that province is prosperous. Samsa Çavuş is also nearby. Let's inform him so that he can let us know when there is an opportunity. With his words, he determined the route and project of the expedition. Osman Gazi returned from this expedition with complete success and great spoils. 

Kose Mihal Gazi's respect and devotion to Osman Gazi was truly great. When he married his daughter to Kalanus' son, he invited Osman Gazi, as well as the local Byzantine rulers, to the wedding. Osman Gazi came to the wedding with more gifts than the others. Köse Mihal was actually trying to make the Greek tekfurs familiar with Osman Gazi, to love him and to establish friendship. However, instead of listening to Kose Mihal Gazi's peaceful proposals, the others invited him to ally with them and eliminate Osman. Because his increasing power and might began to worry them. 

As a matter of fact, they soon found the opportunity they were looking for. They would invite Osman Gazi to the wedding of the Tekfur of Bilecik with the daughter of Yarhisar Bey and they would eliminate him there together. Kose Mihal Gazi, on the other hand, informed his friend of the plan prepared by the tekfurs in time and saved him from danger, as well as causing the capture of Yarhisar and Bilecik.

Kose Mihal Gazi's love for Turks and Osman Gazi increased day by day, and in 1313, he abandoned the religion of his ancestors and became a Muslim and took the name Abdullah. There are different records indicating that Abdullah Kose Mihal Gazi became a Muslim in 1305, 1308 or 1313. It is generally accepted that he converted to Islam in 1313 upon the invitation of Osman Bey. After a long time, when Osman Gazi was going to go on an expedition to the Sakarya line this year, he invited Kose Mihal Gazi to the army again. When he arrived, he honored him and gave him treats. During the chat;

You've been chatting with us all this time. You show loyalty to us while being enemies with your own race. While the whole world was crying out for us, you remained loyal. He invited him to Islam with the words: "You bloomed like a rose with us and became a thorn in the eyes of our enemies. Is it worth it for you to deny our religion when you have such a wholehearted friendship and complete loyalty?" Upon these words, Kose Mihal Gazi certainly accepted Islam with pleasure, which he had probably been thinking about for a long time. Osman Gazi was very happy about this situation and made him wear the hil'at.

In some sources, it is reported that he became a Muslim by seeing the Prophet Muhammad in his dream at an earlier date and that he came to Osman Gazi and gave the good news.

While Osman Gazi went on an expedition to Akhisar and Lefke, he left Kose Mihal Gazi with Orhan Bey and Saltuk Alp in Karacahisar to ensure security. They devastated the Çavdarlu Tatars who raided the Karacahisar market. Again, when Osman Gazi appointed his son Orhan to head the Gaza movement starting from 1317, he appointed Kose Mihal Gazi as one of his chief assistants and advisors. After that, Kose Mihal Gazi, who always acted together with Orhan Bey, first conquered the Kara Çepiş Alpsu and Kara Tekin fortresses. He played an important role in the capture of Atranos. He participated in the conquest of Bursa. Orhan Gazi sent him to Tekfura to persuade him to surrender the castle peacefully. Kose Mihal Gazi reminded Tekfura of what would happen to him in case of war and gave him advice and recommendations. He declared that the only way for salvation was to surrender the castle, guaranteed that his life and property would not be touched, and convinced the takfur. When Tekfur asked for protection while leaving the castle, Kose Mihal Gazi demanded and received thirty thousand gold coins from him. Thus, he enabled the conquest to take place easily.

The date of death of Kose Mihal Gazi, whose name was not seen in the wars after the conquest of Bursa, is unknown. His tomb is next to the Armenian village of Mihalgazi township.

In Ottoman history, in the 16th century. Mihalli raiders, who were active until the end of the century, are the sons and grandchildren of Gazi Mihal Bey. Kose Mihal Gazi's two sons are known, named Ali and Aziz.

Abdurrahman Gazi Ottoman Empire Alps
Abdurrahman Gazi Ottoman Empire Alps

Abdurrahman Gazi:

Abdurrahman Gazi is one of the mujahid commanders who made great contributions to the establishment of the Ottoman Empire. He was one of Osman Gazi's loyal comrades and one of his assistants in the conquests. After Osman Gazi stepped aside in 1317, he appointed Abdurrahman Gazi as the head of one of the raider branches. Together with Orhan Gazi, they first captured the Kara Çepiş and Alb/Ebesusu fortresses, and then the Köprühisar. Later, they arrived at the fortified Kara Tekin fortress to facilitate the conquest of Iznik. 

After these conquests, Orhan Gazi charged Sergeant Samsa with the siege of Iznik and Abdurrahman Gazi with the task of preventing aid and dangers that might come from Byzantium. As a matter of fact, Abdurrahman Gazi dispersed the forces that were sent to Yalova by ships from Istanbul with a raid. Thus, he served as margrave until the conquest of Bursa. He conquered Bursa.

In 728/1327-1328, he was assigned to the conquest of Aydos together with Konur Alp. The strong and high walls of the castle made the attacks ineffective. However, while the castle commander's daughter was watching the Turks from the walls, she witnessed a brave man whom she had previously seen in her dreams saving her from trouble - it was Abdurrahman Gazi - fighting on the opposing lines. She wrote a letter to the young man with whom she had a deep love, wrapped it in a stone and threw it away. According to the girl's plan, Abdurrahman Gazi entered through the secretly opened door at night with about eighty of his men. Thus, the castle easily fell into the hands of the veterans.

A few days later, Abdurrahman Gazi personally delivered the news of the conquest of Aydos to Orhan Gazi. Orhan Bey married the daughter who was instrumental in the conquest to Abdurrahman Gazi. Kara Rahman, who later gained great fame in bravery and bravery, was born from this marriage.

Akçakoca Alp Ottoman Empire Alps
Akçakoca Alp Ottoman Empire Alps

Akça Koca Bey:

Akçakoca is one of the most loyal and famous comrades of Ertuğrul and Osman Gazi. As a matter of fact, before Osman Gazi's first clash with the İnegöl Bey, he was present among the beys he consulted and in the battle that took place afterwards. From this date until 1317, when Orhan Gazi began to represent his father, his name is not mentioned in the campaigns. However, this does not mean that he did not participate in wars. While Osman Gazi appoints his son as the commander of the campaigns , he appoints four of his most courageous comrades who have been experienced with twenty years of loyalty and war, one of whom is Akçakoca, as his assistants.

Akçakoca In 1317, Kara Çepiş participated in the conquest of the Alpine fortresses. Orhan Gazi gave the Alp/Ebesusu Fortress to Akçakoca. In 1320, he was tasked with the conquest of Izmit and its surroundings, together with his nobles. Akçakoca, who took a place in Beşköprü on the side of Lake Sapanca on the Ayan River as his army headquarters, began to spend his days raising horses against his enemies in the surrounding area and chaining them up to captivity. He advanced his raids as far as Akova. One by one, the positions here began to be subjugated by Osman Gazi.

From now on, Akçakoca, by the order of Orhan Gazi, turned the direction of the conquest movement towards the Black Sea and the Bosphorus. He took Kandıra and Armenianpazarı (Akmeşe) castles (1326). Then they marched on Samandıra with Konur Alp. Tekfur's leaving the castle with his soldiers for the funeral of his dead son was a great opportunity for the veterans. They immediately got between the castle and the enemy soldiers watching the funeral, blocking their way back. The stunned enemies scattered in weakness and despair. With the capture of Tekfur by the veterans, Samandıra castle was easily captured. Samandıra Fortress was given to him as property. After this, they conquered Aydos with Konur Alp and Abdurrahman Gazi.

Orhan Bey, who was very pleased with the conquests of Kandıra, Samandıra and Aydos, assigned Akçakoca to raid Iznik. This great Turkish commander, who spent his life with Greek warriors and wars, died in 1328 while raiding the places between Izmit and Üsküdar. His grave is on a hill near Kandıra.

Izmit and its surroundings, which were taken under Turkish rule with the efforts of Akçakoca, were later called Kocaeli after his name. In addition, today the Akçakoca district of Bolu province bears his name. It is known that he has a son named Hacı İlyas. His grandson Fazlullah played important roles in Ottoman politics, first as a judge and then as a vizier.

Kara Mursel Bey Ottoman Empire Alps
Kara Mursel Bey Ottoman Empire Alps

Kara Mursel Bey:

According to sources, he was seen on stage during the time of Orhan Bey. It was probably found during the conquest of Izmit. When Orhan Bey gave İzmit to the administration of his eldest son Süleyman Pasha, he also made appointments to the surrounding provinces. This issue is also mentioned by Aşıkpaşazade; There was a brave man called Kara Mürsel and they gave him the timar of the region (that is, the region bearing his name). They gave the Armenian market to Yahşılu. They gave the province of Kandıra to Akbaş. It is explained by saying that there are still descendants of them.

Other Alps and Gazi's:

Among these commanders, there are others whose names are rarely mentioned in sources, but it is understood that they served in important positions for many years. As a matter of fact, for Hasan Alp, whom Osman Gazi brought to the administration of Yarhisar during the transfer of dirlik (1301); He was a useful comrade. It is stated that he came to Söğüt with them.

Osman Gazi besieged Iznik in 1302, but could not capture it due to the strength of its walls. Thereupon, he built a fortress nearby in order to constantly pressure the castle and force it to surrender. Taz Ali was appointed as the serdar of the fortress, where supplies and ammunition were placed. This commander, mentioned as Targan in some sources. He is described as a brave man who would never turn back from a hundred men in battle. While he was in charge of the castle, he made every effort to harass the people of Nicaea. He fought with them several times. Thus, he worked day and night to make Nicaea ready for conquest.

Another important Byzantine Castle that Osman Gazi blockaded, like Iznik, was Bursa. He realized that he could not overcome the strong walls of this place and had two fortresses built, one on the Kaplıcalar side and the other on the mountain side, for constant pressure (714/1314-1315). He appointed one of his servants, Balabancık, who was known for his unlimited loyalty, as the chief of the fortress on the mountain side. Balabancık, together with Aktimur, the commander of the other fortress, blockaded Bursa for ten years. So much so that the famine in the city reached its peak, and the people, who could not get help from anywhere, had run out of endurance. When it became clear that they would surrender the castle peacefully, on the condition that they were allowed to leave freely, these two famous commanders sent notice to Osman Bey. Thus, as a result of their truly loyal services, Bursa was easily captured without any battles or losses.

It is said that Sergeant Samsa's brother, Sulemis, was a brave man and a good man for comradeship.

Bayhoca Alp Ottoman Empire Alps
Bayhoca Alp Ottoman Empire Alps

On the other hand, Osman Gazi's brothers and nephews served like true soldiers during the founding years and gave their lives for this cause. As a matter of fact, the family lost its first martyr in the war between the Tekfur of İnegöl and the Armenian Derbend. Bayhoca, the son of Osman Gazi's brother Saru Yatı, who was praised in the sources as being like the full moon among veterans and a soldier of the battlefields, was killed. His body was buried next to a ruined caravanserai near the village of Hamzabey, close to the battlefield.

Osman Gazi fought a bloody war in Ekizce against the allied forces of İnegöl and Karacahisar tekfurs in 686/1287-1288. Here the enemy broke down and fled, but this time his brother Saru lost his yacht. His grave is in the Ertuğrul Gazi tomb in Söğüt.

Gündüz Alp Ottoman Empire Alps
Gündüz Alp Ottoman Empire Alps 

For Osman Gazi, his other elder brother Gündüz Alp was both an indispensable advisor and a most important commander in the campaigns. They resisted the attack of Eskişehir Bey together. Although they captured Köse Mihal in this war, Osman forgave him for his bravery. Gündüz Alp was also present in the raid on Göynük and Taraklı Yenice.

After the conquest of Bilecik, Yarhisar and İnegöl in 698/1298-1299, Osman Gazi started independent movements as a sign of declaring his independence, due to the changes that occurred in the Seljuk throne. In 1301, he divided his principality into five administrative regions and assigned each of them to the beys he trusted and saw their usefulness in wars. Meanwhile, he gave the administration of Eskişehir to Gündüz Alp.

However, Gündüz Alp was probably martyred in the Battle of Koyunhisar, which took place in the same year. 

The only goal of Osman Gazi, who moved the capital of the principality to Yenişehir, was to conquer Iznik, one of the most important cities of Byzantium, which was only 25 km away. After capturing Köprühisar, the siege of Iznik was started, but it was lifted when it was heard that auxiliary units were coming from Byzantium. Neighboring Greek lords such as Bursa, Atranos, Kestel and Kite also allied to put an end to his activities. The arrival of an auxiliary force of two thousand people from Byzantium under the command of Muzalon in this alliance made Osman Bey's situation difficult. According to the statement of Byzantine sources, Osman Gazi defeated this allied army of five thousand people in a fierce battle in Koyunhisar location. While Muzalon barely saved his life, Gündüz Alp's son Aydoğdu was also martyred. Osman Gazi could not hold back his tears of sadness at the death of this warrior nephew. [56] Although it is not seen in other Ottoman sources, Kemalpaşazade writes that his father Gündüz Alp died in this war, as well as Aydoğdu. Their graves are on the road to Koyunhisar.

Aktimur Alp Ottoman Empire Alps
Aktimur Alp Ottoman Empire Alps 

Another nephew of Osman Gazi, whose activities were seen in the early period, was Aktimur. Sources are silent about the name of his father. However, he must have been one of Osman Gazi's most beloved, trusted, brave and capable gentlemen. Because, after the conquest of Karacahisar, Osman Gazi gave this nephew the task of taking the castle tekfur to the Seljuk sultan with abundant spoils. Aktimur, who represented his uncle there in the most beautiful way, was honored and respected by the Seljuk sultan. The Seljuk sultan, who was extremely pleased with Osman Gazi's activities, gave him Karacahisar as a mansion as a reward for his services, and also sent him the signs of sultanate such as sanjak, tabl, alem and tuğ. When Osman Bey's nephew Aktimur came with these gifts, he took a few steps towards his future. While the mehter plays the war tune, His successors also abided by this rule until Mehter the Conqueror, when the mehter was played during the five daily prayers.

Aktimur's next most important duty was to be the serdar of the one on the Kaplıcalar side of the two fortresses built to oppress Bursa. Aktimur, who blockaded Bursa for ten years together with Balabancık, the commander of the other fortress, played the most important role in the conquest of the castle. There is no information about the subsequent activities and death of Aktimur, who conquered Akova together with Akçakoca following the conquest of Bursa.

Brave Alps And Gazi's Of Ottoman Empire
Brave Alps And Gazi's Of Ottoman Empire

The great historian Halil İnalcık; “While the history of a nation or state is being written, a certain image, friendship and hostility, political ideologies, and new cultural tendencies that have settled in the world public opinion distort, exaggerate, or smear the truth. This is an inevitable destiny. In this respect, Ottoman history is the most distorted and one-sidedly interpreted history.” In a way, he explains the main reason for the wrong and biased ideas put forward about this state today. Indeed, one of today's writers, Colin Imber; In an article he wrote about the origins of the Ottomans, he explains that Osman Gazi and his comrades in arms are a product of imagination. According to that; The best a contemporary historian can do is to accept that the beginning of Ottoman history was nothing more than a black hole. Any attempt to fill this hole will only result in increasing the number of fairy tales, he says.

Evaluating such statements of Imber, İlber Ortaylı said; “What they write is all bullshit. You see him swinging his sword very easily, or as the French call it, shouldering an open door. He says that all these stories and narrations are lies, myths, and have nothing to do with reality. This is very difficult to say. Because in order to determine its relevance to reality, you need to find data that actually conveys the truth. He strongly criticizes it by saying.

Indeed, historical records, toponymic research and grave sites provide information about Osman Gazi and his comrades-in-arms. Calling them legends must be an organization of those who are currently carrying out activities to eliminate their works in the Balkans, Arabia and many other lands where the Empire remains.

In a foundation deed; “If you want to know us after us, look at the works we left behind. Because it is our works that introduce us best,” he says. Those who see the Ottoman state and its magnificence on three continents will best understand the founders of this state.

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