The Mughal Empire History / Rise Of Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire / Rise Of Mughal Empire:

  The Mughal Empire, having its roots from Central Asia ruled the Indian Sub-Continent which comprised of present day India, Pakistan,Bangladesh and regions of Afghanistan

The Mughal Empire  History / Rise Of Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire Map

Mughals by family line were the direct descendants of Genghis Khan second son Chaghtai Khan. The empire itself was an extension of Timurid Dynasty, named after its founder Amir Timur or Tamerlane. The Timurid Empire ruled Persia and modern Central Asia virtually unchallenged from 1370 till 1507. 

Mughal Empire was founded by Emperor Babur, who was the grandson of Timur. Babur was born in 1483 at Fergana Valley,which is at the crossroad of modern day Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. He became ruler of Fergana at the age of eleven, but lost both Fargana and later captured Samarkand due to in-house struggle primarily with his brother Jahangir. By 1502 he was without any formal territory,and took refuge in Tashkent which was ruled by his maternal uncle.

 With all hopes lost of winning back his ancestor all and, Babur set his eyes on Kabul in Afghanistan. In 1504, he crossed snow covered Hindu Kush mountains and defeated Arghun Dynasty under Ulugh Baig Mirza. Till 1526, he ruled Kabul but his sight were on Sub continent, owing to the great fortunes associated with it.

The Mughal Empire / Rise Of Mughal Empire

Zaheer Ud Din Babur:

Babur assembled a superior fighting force, courtesy special aid from Ottoman Turks and started his conquest of sub-continent which was then ruled by the Lodhi Dynasty. The showdown between the two forces was fought between the two armies at Panipat (Present day India) on twentieth April 1526. 

Although outnumbered, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and formed the foundation of Mughal Empire that would last till 1857. In its golden age, the empire covered entire Indian Subcontinent as well as parts of Afghanistan. Spread over an area of four million square kilo meters, the Mughal Empire was the third largest empire witnessed by the region ever. Near eighteenth century,

History Of Mughal Empire In English:

Mughal Empire under Emperor Aurangzeb had over twenty five percent of the world total population under its folds,amounting to one hundred and fifty million subjects. 

By seventeenth century, Mughal Empire was the largest economic power of the world, with a quarter of global industrial produce coming from the empire. It is rightly rated among the three greatest Islamic Gunpowder empires along with the Ottoman's and Safavid's. Mughal Empire gave many innovative and unique features in administration, economy, labor practices, industry and military.

 For administration, the Mughal Empire was divided into Provinces which were termed as Subah. Each province was headed by a governor known as Subahdar. They were further divided into counties for effective and efficient administration. The main administrative divisions of subcontinent under Mughal Empire comprised of following Mughal economy was its driving force and success in the region.

 By sixteenth century, Mughal Empire was contributing almost twenty five percent to the global economy, only preceded by Ming Empire in China. However, by seventeenth century the Mughal's surpassed Ming's to claim the crown for world largest economic might. 

The Mughal Empire  History / Rise Of Mughal Empire

Business Models Of Mughul Empire:

As agriculture was the primary product,Mughal's envisioned one of the most effective system of roadways at that time which connected cities with other far off region, and had dedicated resources towards keeping them in proper order.

 The net worth of Mughal Empire revenue during eighteenth century was estimated at almost ninety one thousand millions dollars annually,which made twenty five percent of total global fortunes of that time. The currency, 

originally introduced by a foreign conqueror Sher Shah Suri was adopted by Mughals for their empire which made the economic system of the empire effective by all means. 
Agriculture was the backbone of Mughal economic structure, almost sixty five percent of entire produce. 

Innovation was another feather of Mughal era,as Maize and tobacco were introduced which were alien to this land. Silk was the jewel of Bengal, almost  maintaining monopoly across the region. For high yield, irrigation system funded by the empire was established on a massive scale. Seed drills were introduced in the empire prior to their induction in European agriculture. A system, known as Zabt was implemented that was modern and rational. For instance, the tax imposed by the empire varied for the high demand crops, which were subsidized to encourage the production. Similarly, tax breaks were introduced to new cultivation's which brought more lands into agriculture fold The products of sub continent up til 18th century powered the markets of Europe and other regions. 

Textile, Shipbuilding and Steel had assumed the status of industry under Mughal patronage. Cotton Silk, Jute led the Mughal export might. By estimate, by seventeenth century British Empire alone depended 95% on sub continent exports. With high imbalance in trade, Europeans were forced to trade in silver and gold to pay off Mughal empire. In shipbuilding, Mughal at their peak outpaced British, Dutch and American ship yards collectively. Mughal Empire was artistic, and notable additions were made during the reign.
The Mughal Empire  History / Rise Of Mughal Empire

Taj Mehal Arts Of Mughul Empire:

As of today, many of Mughal's great architecturegiants have been endorsed as World Heritage Sites. These include The Magnificent Taj Mehal in Agra, Tomb of emperor Hamayun in DelhiFatehpur Sikri as well as forts at Agra, Delhi and Lahore. The Mughal art was a fusion of European renaissance,Persian and local traditions. Artists with global appeal included Basawan,Lal, Daswanth, Miskin, Kesu Das, Govardhan. Mughal military might was formidable for almost two centuries during their reign on sub continent.

 They borrowed heavily from innovations across the region, which supplemented their strength. Babur's expertise in gunpowder and artillery landed him victories over much superior by strength Lodhi's during conquest of the region.

 Guns made of bronze were in action as early as 16th century. Akbar's expert Shirazi was the inventor of modern day volley gun with multiple gun barrels.

Mughal patronage to what we know as rocket today had been another weapon of choice, which was used in notable battle fronts with extreme success.

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